2019’s Most & Least Diverse States in America

Posted by: Adam McCann

The American narrative is a story of diversity. Our history tells of many different peoples coming together from every walk of life to form what is today a complex tapestry of backgrounds.

And our story will continue to advance that narrative in the decades to come. The U.S. Census Bureau predicts that by 2044 the U.S. will no longer have a single ethnic majority, currently non-Hispanic whites, and will grow increasingly more diverse in the years to follow.

But U.S. diversity spans more than just racial lines. In many states, the population reflects a mix of not just races and ethnicities but also cultures, religions, economic statuses, educational backgrounds and other characteristics. These groups come together in everyday life, influencing and experiencing one another. However, some elements of society aren’t as diverse as others. For example, there are only 33 women among the CEOs of fortune 500 companies, and around 66% of those companies’ board members are white.

Some U.S. states promote diversity more than others. In order to determine where idea and identity exchanges have occurred at the highest level — and where the population is relatively more homogeneous — WalletHub compared the 50 states across six key diversity categories. For a more local perspective on America’s ever-expanding diversity, we also conducted our analysis at the city level. Read on for our findings, expert commentary from a panel of researchers and a full description of our methodology.

  1. Main Findings
  2. Detailed Findings
  3. Ask the Experts
  4. Methodology

Main Findings Embed on your website<iframe src="//d2e70e9yced57e.cloudfront.net/wallethub/embed/38262/geochart-diverse-states.html" width="556" height="347" frameBorder="0" scrolling="no"></iframe> <div style="width:556px;font-size:12px;color:#888;">Source: <a href="https://ift.tt/2OvXzmV>

 

Most & Least Diverse States in the U.S.

Overall Rank (1 = Most Diverse)

State

Total Score

‘Socioeconomic Diversity’ Rank

‘Cultural Diversity’ Rank

‘Economic Diversity’ Rank

‘Household Diversity’ Rank

‘Religious Diversity’ Rank

‘Political Diversity’ Rank

1California70.8431115328
2Texas70.011341314621
3Hawaii69.591634113416
4New Jersey69.44574026194
5New York69.1788376216
6New Mexico68.94406542236
7Maryland68.5821025103019
8Florida68.28285337385
9Nevada68.162924324511
10Illinois67.961212382372
11Arizona67.872392684117
12Virginia67.6441416332524
13Georgia67.4419131491635
14Connecticut67.116154528277
15Alaska66.6222111314426
16Massachusetts66.211195023332
17Delaware66.16141741183529
18Colorado66.1571827364022
19Washington66.1010161535439
20North Carolina65.84262128222632
21Rhode Island65.8311204911361
22Oklahoma65.5344226171831
23Louisiana65.124625123344
24South Carolina65.09352321131441
25Kansas64.83212623391126
26Nebraska64.1925332441433
27Minnesota64.0615364444515
28Oregon63.95202420294823
29Pennsylvania63.95243247321013
30Mississippi63.8849271011447
31Alabama63.88453018151247
32Tennessee63.73413122202043
33Arkansas63.27482817192445
34Idaho63.1243357481345
35Missouri62.94313935301718
36Michigan62.88323448253110
37Wisconsin62.7930403937930
38North Dakota62.732743949138
39South Dakota62.623942843250
40Indiana62.57383746272920
41Wyoming62.3837382473740
42Ohio62.20364142162828
43Iowa62.1733453145811
44Utah61.95182930504949
45Kentucky61.35474629212339
46Montana60.9942443463942
47New Hampshire60.8294736424613
48Vermont59.80174834404734
49Maine58.48344932385025
50West Virginia58.32505019344237

 

Embed on your website<a href="https://ift.tt/305Os5p"> <img src="//d2e70e9yced57e.cloudfront.net/wallethub/posts/66451/2019-ethnoracial-diversity-by-state.gif" width="" height="" alt="" /> </a> <div style="width:px;font-size:12px;color:#888;">Source: <a href="https://ift.tt/2OvXzmV>

Detailed Findings

State

‘Household-Income Diversity’ Rank

‘Educational-Attainment Diversity’ Rank

‘Racial & Ethnic Diversity’ Rank

‘Linguistic Diversity’ Rank

‘Birthplace Diversity’ Rank

‘Industry Diversity’ Rank

‘Occupational Diversity’ Rank

‘Worker-Class Diversity’ Rank

‘Marital-Status Diversity’ Rank

‘Generational Diversity’ Rank

‘Household-Type Diversity’ Rank

‘Household-Size Diversity’ Rank

‘Religious Diversity’ Rank

‘Political Diversity’ Rank

Alabama47292247432110226139471247
Alaska144131741720134493144427
Arizona2918118313322915413124117
Arkansas4843273729323189620432445
California1422124236163245122328
Colorado1082416534533394736114022
Connecticut7721121944473527152520277
Delaware12201522833423919517253529
Florida3723872123140311142385
Georgia31121021164282616447141635
Hawaii3271914202933623233416
Idaho38454128136914493249181345
Illinois16111211382335473131211773
Indiana344035324042650223326222920
Iowa25484535443115324594438811
Kansas2721302425283019412639271126
Kentucky443343464130734102022352339
Louisiana46311633509524239230344
Maine3535504233472515261738495025
Maryland4451593549624361083019
Massachusetts13125103050503730432413332
Michigan3236293049431948212318283110
Minnesota82238233936404447254319515
Mississippi503418494629191271321447
Missouri3632374337272241181228311718
Montana404146481810215381145483942
Nebraska203036263414242846344123433
Nevada2837361461245429574511
New Hampshire216473415374331424147214613
New Jersey11574172646383510296194
New Mexico45179212342625143262236
New York18365354544212037410216
North Carolina3915172521252727171916332632
North Dakota15474444321616848464640138
Ohio3338344048382346131614392828
Oklahoma41391929275812143023241831
Oregon2619311910153420251834154823
Pennsylvania242532274739334923727341013
Rhode Island199261323493843838629361
South Carolina4324203922181125788451541
South Dakota304640413611131043244044250
Tennessee4228283828221423122215372043
Texas23104326118302948195621
Utah6263320318373650505014949
Vermont2213494520484111284042464734
Virginia5614181119487333533162524
Washington91423147739173742379439
West Virginia49494850424141311330504237
Wisconsin214239314540174240213536930
Wyoming1750423662424442848413740

 

Ask the Experts

Diversity can have profound effects on communities. For insight on such outcomes and advice on achieving social integration, we asked a panel of experts to share their thoughts on the following key questions:

  1. What are the pros and cons of living in a diverse state?
  2. What impact does diversity have on social innovation and social cohesion? What about violence and social unrest?
  3. What can policymakers do to encourage integration across neighborhoods?
  4. How can states take advantage of their diversity in order to increase economic growth?
< >

Methodology

In order to determine the most and least diverse states in America, WalletHub compared the 50 states across six key dimensions: 1) Socio-economic Diversity, 2) Cultural Diversity, 3) Economic Diversity, 4) Household Diversity, 5) Religious Diversity and 6) Political Diversity.

We evaluated those dimensions using 14 relevant metrics, which are listed below with their corresponding weights and subcomponents. Each metric was graded on a 100-point scale.

Finally, we determined each state’s weighted average across all metrics to calculate its overall score and used the resulting scores to rank-order the states. A total score of 100 represents the most diverse state.

We conducted our analysis using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index method, which is a commonly accepted measure of market concentration that also works effectively as a general-purpose measure of diversity (e.g., race/ethnicity, occupations, languages, nationalities).

  1. Socioeconomic Diversity - Total Points: 20
    1. Household-Income Diversity: Weight - Double Weight (~13.33 Points)
      • $34,999 or Less
      • $35,000 - $49,999
      • $50,000 - $74,999
      • $75,000 - $99,999
      • $100,000 - $149,999
      • $150,000 or more
    2. Educational-Attainment Diversity: Weight - Full Weight (~6.67 Points)
      • No high school diploma
      • High school diploma and perhaps some college or an associate’s degree
      • Bachelor’s degree
      • Graduate or professional degree

     

  2. Cultural Diversity - Total Points: 20
    1. Racial & Ethnic Diversity: Weight - Triple Weight (~10.00 Points)
      • Hispanic or Latino
      • White (not Hispanic or Latino)
      • Black or African American (not Hispanic or Latino)
      • Asian (not Hispanic or Latino)
      • Other (American Indian and Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, some other race alone, two or more races and not Hispanic or Latino)
    2. Linguistic Diversity: Weight - Double Weight (~6.67 Points)
      • English
      • Spanish
      • Other Indo-European Languages
      • Asian & Pacific-Islander Languages
      • Other Languages
    3. Birthplace Diversity: Weight - Full Weight (~3.33 Points)
      • In State of Residence
      • Northeast Region
      • Midwest Region
      • South Region
      • West Region
      • U.S. Territory & Abroad (if born to American parent(s))
      • Foreign Nation

     

  3. Economic Diversity - Total Points: 20
    1. Industry Diversity: Weight - Triple Weight (~12.00 Points)Note: Considers the civilian employed population aged 16 years and older.
      • Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, and Mining
      • Construction
      • Manufacturing
      • Wholesale Trade
      • Retail Trade
      • Transportation and Warehousing, and Utilities
      • Information
      • Finance and Insurance, and Real Estate and Rental and Leasing
      • Professional, Scientific, and Management, and Administrative and Waste-Management Services
      • Educational Services, and Health Care and Social Assistance
      • Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation, and Accommodation and Food Services
      • Other Services (excluding Public Administration)
      • Public Administration
    2. Occupational Diversity: Weight - Full Weight (~4.00 Points)Note: Considers the civilian employed population aged 16 years and older.
      • Management, Business, Science, and Arts Occupations
      • Service Occupations
      • Sales and Office Occupations
      • Natural-Resources, Construction, and Maintenance Occupations
      • Production, Transportation, and Material-Moving Occupations
    3. Worker-Class Diversity: Weight - Full Weight (~4.00 Points)Note: Considers the civilian employed population aged 16 years and older.
      • Private Wage & Salary Workers
      • Government Workers
      • Self-Employed Workers (operating their own, unincorporated businesses)Note: Includes “people who worked for profit or fees in their own unincorporated business, professional practice, or trade or who operated a farm,” according to the U.S. Census Bureau.
      • Unpaid Family Workers

     

  4. Household Diversity - Total Points: 20
    1. Marital-Status Diversity: Weight - Full Weight (~5.00 Points)
      • Never Married
      • Married (excluding separated)
      • Divorced
      • Separated
      • Widowed
    2. Generational Diversity: Weight - Full Weight (~5.00 Points)
      • Post-Millennials (Generation Z): born after 2000
      • Millennials: Ages 16 to 35 Years (born 1981-2000)
      • Generation X: Ages 36 to 51 Years (born 1965-1980)
      • Baby Boomers: Ages 52 to 70 Years (born 1946-1964)
      • Silent Generation & Greatest Generation: Ages 71 Years & Older (born before 1946)
    3. Household-Type Diversity: Weight - Full Weight (~5.00 Points)
      • Family Households with Married Couples
      • Male-Headed Family Households (no spouse present)
      • Female-Headed Family Households (no spouse present)
      • Nonfamily Households
    4. Household-Size Diversity: Weight - Full Weight (~5.00 Points)
      • Two-Person Family Households
      • Three-Person Family Households
      • Four-Person Family Households
      • Five-Person Family Households
      • Six-Person Family Households
      • Seven-Person or More Family Households
      • One-Person Nonfamily Households
      • Two-Person Nonfamily Households
      • Three-Person Nonfamily Households
      • Four-Person Nonfamily Households
      • Five-Person Nonfamily Households
      • Six-Person Nonfamily Households
      • Seven-Person or More Nonfamily Households

     

  5. Religious Diversity - Total Points: 10
    • Evangelical Protestant
    • Mainline Protestant
    • Black Protestant
    • Catholic
    • Orthodox Christian
    • Muslim
    • Buddhist
    • Hindu
    • Jewish
    • Unaffiliated
    • Other

     

  6. Political Diversity - Total Points: 10
    • Conservative
    • Moderate
    • Liberal
    • Unclaimed

 Videos for News Use:

 Sources: Data used to create this ranking were collected from the U.S. Census Bureau, ARDA and AVA.

Image: Monkey Business Images / Shutterstock.com



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